How does visible light become matter?
The process begins with the phase cancellation of electromagnetic waves. All waves are subject to phase cancellation. Phase cancellation occurs when two waves 180 degrees out of phase combine and results in a reduced intensity to one or both of the original waves.
We can consider electromagnetic phase cancellation the coupling of photons also called two-photon physics.
From quantum electrodynamics we know that photons cannot couple directly to each other, since they carry no charge, but they can interact through higher-order processes. A photon can, within the bounds of the uncertainty principle, fluctuate into a charged fermion-antifermion pair, to either of which the other photon can couple. This fermion pair can be leptons or quarks. Thus, two-photon physics experiments can be used as ways to study the photon structure, or what is "inside" the photon.
Which explains why we see so little phase cancellation occurring between electromagnetic waves but it is observed across the entire electromagnetic spectrum.
Two-photon physics, also called gamma-gamma physics, is a branch of particle physics for the interactions between two photons. If the energy in the center of mass system of the two photons is large enough, matter can be created.
The total number of coupled photons produced from phase cancellation exist as a standing wave. Its this standing wave which can form the atom. When charge develops across a standing wave polarization occurs resulting in spin, see image below.
We must look to the theory of relativity to explain how a standing wave of visible light can form matter through its rotational velocity. Albert Einstein's the theory of relativity predicts that the energy density of a system is relative to motion (velocity). The Doppler effect is a known example of the energy density, velocity relationship. For electromagnetic waves the Doppler effect is known as red shift and blue shift. Blue shift is the phenomenon that the frequency of an electromagnetic wave (such as light) emitted by a source moving towards the observer is shifted towards the blue side of the electromagnetic spectrum (that is, its wavelength is decreased, or its energy is increased). In order for a standing wave of visible light to form matter the coupled photons which make up the standing wave will need to be blue shifted into the gamma ray spectrum through its rotational velocity.
A standing wave would exist over an area made up from billions upon trillions of coupled photons. As charge develops across the standing wave polarization occurs resulting in spin. The coupled photons are set into motion, as velocity of spin increases the frequency making up the coupled photons also increases as a direct result of spin velocity predicted by relativity. As the coupled photons frequency increases, the area in which the standing wave occupies decreases collapsing its structure inward. The inward collapse accelerates spin velocity even higher, coupled photons increase in frequency and a decreased area of the standing wave follows accelerating spin velocity once again. This cycle will repeat itself over an over again increasing spin velocity exponentially, in turn increasing coupled photon frequency exponentially which reduces the overall area the standing wave occupies exponentially, resulting in accelerated spin velocity yet again. As the velocity of the standing waves spin reaches 186,000 mps (the speed of light) the energy density is matter, has mass and produces gravity.
The frequency changes in this system are considered a potential energy. Its higher state of energy is directly proportional to its velocity. The energy sustaining its higher state of energy is absorbed from the surrounding environment; we observe this exchange of energy as gravity (a special thanks to reality check for reminding me the energy to sustain this increased frequency comes from the surrounding environment, I too read that a long time ago). Mass equals the change in frequency or the energy gained as a result of the standing waves spin velocity. Negative charges are pushed outward resulting in what we observe as the electron field, while positive charges are pushed inward towards the standing waves center of rotation. In a rotating standing wave the coupled photons are arranged so that they appear to spiral outwards from the center, this structure creates the mechanism which pushes electric charge.
The dynamics here are the same dynamics happening when we produce electricity in a electric generator. To understand how charge is pushed in two opposite directions within an atom we must first understand how the electric generator really works. A magnetic field gives us access to the same potential energy the coupled photons gained as increased frequency through the standing Waves spin velocity. When we rotate a coiled copper wire inside a magnetic field (electric generator) we are pushing the potential energy gained from the coupled photons as increased frequency through the electric generators terminals. The rotating coiled copper wire is acting more like a pump pushing electric charge. The standing Waves structure formed by its coupled photons pushes electric charge in the same way an electric generator pushes electric charge but with much greater velocity.
There is yet another rotation to the standing wave which is separate from its spin and is the rotation that pushes electric charge within this system. The standing waves spin creates a magnetic field encompassing the entire standing wave. When this magnetic field's apparent strength becomes great enough it applies torque at a right angle on the rotational plane of the standing waves spin and creates a secondary rotation. There are two axis points to this rotation, the standing wave would appear to tumble through this rotation. The structure of the standing waves coupled photons and this rotation push negative charge outward and positive charge towards its center (inward). These are the same dynamics that take place in an electric generator but with much greater rotational velocities. These dynamics are observed as the nuclear force.
The intensity of the coupled waves which form the standing wave will have a direct relationship to the number of atoms created from a single standing wave. In other words a single standing wave may form more than one atom.
My webpage is http://electromagnetic-waves.com/default.aspx.